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Pīnyīn
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HSK
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  *苦* | 苦* | *苦
bitter / hardship / pain / to suffer / to bring suffering to / painstakingly
HSK 4
bitter and astringent / pained / agonized
HSK 6
bitterness finishes, sweetness begins (idiom); the hard times are over, the good times just beginning
HSK 6
suffering
vexed / distressed
bitter work / hard toil / (loanword) coolie, unskilled Chinese laborer in colonial times
strenuously / persistently / hard / painful
to suffer unspeakable misery / indescribably painful / hellish
bitter cold
to train hard / to practice diligently / hard work / blood, sweat, and tears
lit. sea of bitterness / abyss of worldly suffering (Buddhist term) / depths of misery
bitter struggle / hard battle / arduous effort
secret trouble / sorrow / difficulties
bitter melon (bitter gourd, balsam pear, balsam apple, leprosy gourd, bitter cucumber)
depressed / dejected / feeling low
to suffer from (a disadvantage)
to entreat piteously / to implore
the trick of injuring oneself to gain the enemy's confidence / CL: 條|条
to build up an enterprise through painstaking efforts
toil / hard work
to consider from all angles (idiom); to think hard / to rack one's brains
to think hard / bitter thoughts / to pour out one's sufferings
great bitterness, deep hatred (idiom); deeply ingrained long-standing resentment
to work hard
sufferings
lit. bitter taste (cf good medicine tastes bitter 良藥苦口|良药苦口) / fig. earnestly (of warning, advice)
liquorice (Sophora flavescens), with roots used in TCM
bitter water (e.g. mineral water containing sulfates) / suffering / digestive fluids rising from stomach to the mouth / fig. bitter complaint
to force a smile / a bitter laugh
wormwood / Artemisia absinthium
suffering / distress
gall bladder
hard lot / bitter fate / unfortunate
lit. bitter fruit / fig. painful consequence
earnest and well-meaning advice (idiom); to persuade patiently
to make painstaking efforts (idiom); after much trouble / to work hard at sth
forced labor / corvée / penal servitude
hard times
endive
bitter taste / bitterness
painstaking effort / to take a lot of trouble / laborious at pains
absinthe (distilled anise-based liquor)
pain / suffering
bitter bamboo (Pleioblastus amarus)
to find joy in sorrows (idiom); to enjoy sth in spite of one's suffering
torture / corporal punishment (traditionally involving mutilation or amputation)
hard work / laborious effort / painstaking work
hard task / difficult mission / arduous and unrewarding undertaking / drudgery / grind / chore
hard labor (in penal code) / coolie
bitter work / sweated labor
wretched feelings (opposite: 樂趣|乐趣, delight)
chinaberry (Melia azedarach)
bitter sweet
suffering / misery / pain (esp. psychological)
underlying cause of poverty
treat harshly
ascetic practice
to admonish strenuously
victim's family (esp. in murder case)
endive
see 苦差
sour expression on one's face
to endure (years of suffering)
the Four Noble Truths (Budd.), namely: all life is suffering , the cause of suffering is desire , emancipation comes only by eliminating passions 滅|灭, the way to emancipation is the Eight-fold Noble Way 八正道 / also called 四諦|四谛
hard job / arduous task
The sea of bitterness has no bounds, turn your head to see the shore (idiom). Only Buddhist enlightenment can allow one to shed off the abyss of worldly suffering. / Repent and ye shall be saved!
Bitter Cauliflower, 1954 socialist realist novel by Feng Deying 馮德英|冯德英 loosely based on Maxim Gorky's Mother, made into a 1967 film by Li Ang
wretched state / miserable plight
deep grief / extensive sorrow
grievance / dire straits
(slang) prison
Ixeris denticulata
amygdalin
erhua variant of 苦活
sea of bitterness is vast (idiom)
affliction
wretched situation / plight / wretched / miserable
penance (to atone for a sin)
slightly bitter
erhua variant of 苦不唧
to have difficulty getting by / to struggle (financially etc)
chinaberry (Melia azedarach)
cutleaf ground-cherry / Physalis angulata
coup d'état (loanword)


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