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Traditional
Pīnyīn
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lit. warp and weft in weaving; vertically and horizontal / length and breadth / criss-crossed / able to move unhindered / abbr. for 合縱連橫|合纵连横, School of Diplomacy during the Warring States Period (475-221 BC)
HSK 6
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  *前* | 前* | *前
front / forward / ahead / first / top (followed by a number) / future / ago / before / BC (e.g. 293) / former / formerly
Chinese language (Mandarin), emphasizing its national nature / Chinese as a primary or secondary school subject / Chinese in the context of the Nationalist Government / Guoyu, book of historical narrative c. 10th-5th century BC
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  *商* | 商* | *商
Shang Dynasty (c. 1600-1046 BC) / surname Shang
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  *陳* | 陳* | *陳
surname Chen / Chen (c. 1045 - 479 BC), a Zhou dynasty state / Chen (557-589), one of the Southern Dynasties 南朝
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  *周* | 周* | *周
surname Zhou / Zhou Dynasty (1046-256 BC)
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  *姬* | 姬* | *姬
surname Ji / family name of the Zhou Dynasty 周代 (1046-256 BC)
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  *夏* | 夏* | *夏
the Xia or Hsia dynasty c. 2000 BC / Xia of the Sixteen Kingdoms (407-432) / surname Xia
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  *直* | 直* | *直
surname Zhi / Zhi (c. 2000 BC), fifth of the legendary Flame Emperors 炎帝 descended from Shennong 神農|神农 Farmer God
charactercopypronouncebaikeskritterexampleCorrect
  *明* | 明* | *明
Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) / surname Ming / Ming (c. 2000 BC), fourth of the legendary Flame Emperors, 炎帝 descended from Shennong 神農|神农 Farmer God
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  *衛* | 衛* | *衛
surname Wei / vassal state during the Zhou Dynasty (1066-221 BC), located in present day Henan and Hebei Provinces
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  *啟* | 啟* | *啟
Qi son of Yu the Great , reported founder of the Xia Dynasty 夏朝 (c. 2070-c. 1600 BC)
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  *承* | 承* | *承
surname Cheng / Cheng (c. 2000 BC), third of the legendary Flame Emperors 炎帝 descended from Shennong 神農|神农 Farmer God
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  *漢* | 漢* | *漢
Han ethnic group / Chinese (language) / the Han dynasty (206 BC-220 AD)
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  *趙* | 趙* | *趙
surname Zhao / one of the seven states during the Warring States Period (476-220 BC) / the Former Zhao 前趙 (304-329) and Later Zhao 後趙 (319-350), states of the Sixteen Kingdoms
School of Logicians of the Warring States Period (475-220 BC), also called the School of Names
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  *狄* | 狄* | *狄
surname Di / generic name for northern ethnic minorities during the Qin and Han Dynasties (221 BC-220 AD)
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  *楚* | 楚* | *楚
surname Chu / abbr. for Hubei 湖北省 and Hunan 湖南省 provinces together / Chinese kingdom during the Spring and Autumn and Warring States Periods (722-221 BC)
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  *魏* | 魏* | *魏
surname Wei / name of vassal state of Zhou dynasty from 661 BC in Shanxi, one of the Seven Hero Warring States / Wei state, founded by Cao Cao 曹操, one of the Three Kingdoms after the Han dynasty / the Wei dynasty 221-265 / Wei prefecture and Wei county at different historical periods
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  *薛* | 薛* | *薛
surname Xue / vassal state during the Zhou Dynasty (1046-256 BC)
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  *翼* | 翼* | *翼
surname Yi / alternative name for 絳|绛 capital of the Jin State during the Spring and Autumn Period (770-475 BC)
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  *秦* | 秦* | *秦
surname Qin / Qin dynasty (221-207 BC) of the first emperor 秦始皇 / abbr. for 陝西|陕西
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  *釐* | 釐* | *釐
Li (c. 2000 BC), sixth of the legendary Flame Emperors 炎帝 descended from Shennong 神農|神农 Farmer God, also known as Ai
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  *阮* | 阮* | *阮
surname Ruan / small state during the Shang Dynasty (1600-1046 BC) located in the southeast of modern-day Gansu Province
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  *鄒* | 鄒* | *鄒
surname Zou / vassal state during the Zhou Dynasty (1046-256 BC) in the southeast of Shandong Province
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  *禹* | 禹* | *禹
Yu the Great (c. 21st century BC), mythical leader who tamed the floods / surname Yu
a powerful chief of the princes of the Spring and Autumn Period (770-476 BC) / overlord / hegemon
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  *堯* | 堯* | *堯
surname Yao / Yao or Tang Yao (c. 2200 BC), one of Five legendary Emperors 五帝, second son of Di Ku 帝嚳|帝喾
Duke of Zhou (11th c. BC), son of King Wen of Zhou 周文王, played an important role as regent in founding the Western Zhou 西周, and is also known as the "God of Dreams"
the prehistoric Shang dynasty (c. 16th-11th century BC)
Zhuangzi (369-286 BC), Daoist author
Spring and Autumn Period (770-476 BC) / Spring and Autumn Annals, chronicle of Lu State (722-481 BC)
Ren An (-c. 90 BC), Han Dynasty general, also called Ren Shaoqing 任少卿
the Warring States period (475-221 BC)
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  *垚* | 垚* | *垚
variant of 堯|尧, legendary emperor Yao, c. 2200 BC / embankment
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  *舜* | 舜* | *舜
Shun (c. 23rd century BC), mythical sage and leader
Titus Livius or Livy (59 BC-17 AD), Roman historian
Siddhartha Gautama (563-485 BC), the historical Buddha and founder of Buddhism / Sakyamuni Buddha (Sanskrit: sage of the Sakya)
Qin Shihuang (259-210 BC), the first emperor
"Erya" or "The Ready Guide", first extant Chinese dictionary, c. 3rd century BC, with glossaries on classical texts
"Strategies of the Warring States", chronicle of the Warring States Period (475-220 BC), possibly written by Su Qin 蘇秦|苏秦
School of Agriculture, school of thought of the Warring States Period (475-221 BC)
Hongmen feast / (fig.) banquet set up with the aim of murdering a guest / refers to a famous episode in 206 BC when future Han emperor Liu Bang 劉邦|刘邦 escaped attempted murder by his rival Xiang Yu 項羽|项羽
Guanzi or Guan Zhong 管仲 (-645 BC), famous politician of Qi 齊國|齐国 of Spring and Autumn period / Guanzi, classical book containing writings of Guan Zhong and his school
Emperor Wu of the Han dynasty (141-87 BC)
Ur (Sumerian city c. 4500 BC in modern Iraq)
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  *哀* | 哀* | *哀
Ai (c. 2000 BC), sixth of legendary Flame Emperors 炎帝 descended from Shennong 神農|神农 Farmer God, also known as Li 釐|厘
Zi Lu (542-480 BC), disciple of Confucius 孔夫子, also known as Ji Lu 季路
School of Minor-talks, one of the Hundred Schools of Thought 諸子百家|诸子百家 during the Warring States Period (475-221 BC)
the Yellow Emperor, mythological emperor of China, reigned c. 2697-2597 BC
Former Han dynasty (206 BC-8 AD), also called 西漢|西汉, Western Han dynasty
the School of the Military, one of the Hundred Schools of Thought 諸子百家|诸子百家 of the Warring States Period (475-220 BC)
Eastern Zhou (770-221 BC)
the Grand Canal, 1800 km from Beijing to Hangzhou, built starting from 486 BC
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  *翟* | 翟* | *翟
surname Di / variant of , generic name for northern ethnic minorities during the Qin and Han Dynasties (221 BC-220 AD)
Li Bing (c. 3rd century BC) hydraulic engineer who designed the Dujiangyan 都江堰 irrigation system in Sichuan
to play the xiao 簫|箫 (mouth organ) / to beg while playing pipes; cf politician Wu Zixu 伍子胥, c. 520 BC destitute refugee in Wu town, 吳市吹簫|吴市吹箫 / to busk / virtuoso piper wins a beauty, cf 玉人吹簫|玉人吹箫 / (slang) fellatio / blowjob
lit. “Mr. Lü's Spring and Autumn (Annals)”, compendium of the philosophies of the Hundred Schools of Thought 諸子百家|诸子百家, compiled around 239 BC under the patronage of Qin Dynasty 秦代 Chancellor Lü Buwei 呂不韋|吕不韦
the state of Qin, one of the seven states of the Warring States Period (475-220 BC)
Laozi or Lao-tze (c. 500 BC), Chinese philosopher, the founder of Taoism / the sacred book of Daoism, 道德經|道德经 by Laozi
Western Han Dynasty (206 BC-8 AD), also called 前漢|前汉, Former Han Dynasty
Beijing resident / Peking ape-man, Homo erectus pekinensis (c. 600,000 BC), discovered in 1921 at Zhoukoudian 周口店, Beijing
Sun Tzu, also known as Sun Wu 孫武|孙武 (c. 500 BC, dates of birth and death uncertain), general, strategist and philosopher of the Spring and Autumn Period (700-475 BC), believed to be the author of the “Art of War” 孫子兵法|孙子兵法, one of the Seven Military Classics of ancient China 武經七書|武经七书
The Yellow Emperor's Internal Canon, medical text c. 300 BC
Philistine (Palestinian people, reputedly uncircumcised, c. 1,000 BC)
Mandate of Heaven / the Grand Canal, 1800 km from Beijing to Hangzhou, built starting from 486 BC / usually written 大運河|大运河
Classic of Mountain and Sea, probably compiled c. 500 BC-200 BC, contains wide range of geography, mythology, witchcraft, popular customs etc
Zi Chan (?-522 BC), statesman and philosopher during the Spring and Autumn period
Confucius (551-479 BC), Chinese thinker and social philosopher, also known as 孔夫子
Qi state of Western Zhou and the Warring states (1122-265 BC), centered in Shandong
Wu Qi (440-381 BC), military leader and politician of the Warring States Period (475-220 BC), author of Wuzi 吳子|吴子, one of the Seven Military Classics of ancient China 武經七書|武经七书
white pottery (of Shang Dynastry 16-11th century BC)
Zengzi (505-435 BC), student of Confucius, presumed editor or author of Confucian classic the Great Learning 大學|大学
birth name of Lord Menchang of Qi, Chancellor of Qi and Wei during the Warring States Period (475-221 BC)
Xun Zi or Hsun Tzu (c. 310-237 BC), Confucian philosopher and author of On learning 勸學|劝学
Liu An (179-122 BC), King of Huainan under the Western Han, ordered the writing of the 淮南子
Jiang Ziya (c. 1100 BC, dates of birth and death unknown), partly mythical sage advisor to King Wen of Zhou 周文王 and purported author of “Six Secret Strategic Teachings” 六韜|六韬, one of the Seven Military Classics of ancient China 武經七書|武经七书
the Spring and Autumn (770-476 BC) and Warring States (475-221 BC) periods
Chen Sheng (died 208 BC), Qin dynasty rebel, leader of the Chen Sheng Wu Guang Uprising 陳勝吳廣起義|陈胜吴广起义
Liu Xiang (77-6 BC), Han Dynasty scholar and author
Hannibal (name) / Hannibal Barca (247-183 BC), Carthaginian general
Wei State (407-225 BC), one of the Seven Hero States of the Warring States 戰國七雄|战国七雄 / Wei State or Cao Wei 曹魏 (220-265), the most powerful of the Three Kingdoms
Changping, place name in Gaoping County 高平縣|高平县, southern Shanxi, the scene of the great battle of 262-260 BC between Qin and Zhao
Western Zhou (1027-771 BC)
Yu the Great (c. 21st century BC) mythical leader who tamed the floods
Han Fei, also known as Han Feizi 韓非子|韩非子 (c. 280-233 BC), Legalist philosopher of the Warring States Period (475-220 BC)
Socrates (469-399 BC), Greek philosopher / José Sócrates (1957-), prime minister of Portugal (2005-2011)
Xishi (c. 450 BC), famous Chinese beauty, foremost of the four legendary beauties 四大美女, given by King Gou Jian 勾踐|勾践 of Yue as concubine to King of Wu as part of a successful plan to destroy Wu
Jing Ke (-227 BC), celebrated in verse and fiction as would-be assassin of King Ying Zheng of Qin 秦嬴政 (later the First Emperor 秦始皇)
Han Xin (-196 BC), famous general of first Han emperor Liu Bang 劉邦|刘邦
Aesop (trad. 620-560 BC), Greek slave and storyteller, supposed author of Aesop's fables
Li Si (c. 280-208 BC), Legalist philosopher, calligrapher and prime minister of Qin kingdom and Qin dynasty from 246 to 208 BC
Vertical and Horizontal Alliance, opposing stratagems devised by the School of Diplomacy 縱橫家|纵横家 during the Warring States Period (425-221 BC)
Qin Dynasty (221-207 BC)
King Wu of Zhou (-1043), personal name Ji Fa 姬發|姬发, reigned 1046-1043 BC as first king of Western Zhou dynasty 1046-1043 BC
Mozi (c. 470-391 BC), founder of the Mohist School 墨家 of the Warring States Period (475-220 BC)
Confucius (551-479 BC), Chinese thinker and social philosopher, also known as 孔子
the Han dynasty (206 BC-220 AD)
Liu Bang (256 or 247-195 BC), bandit leader who became first Han emperor Han Gaozu 漢高祖|汉高祖 (reigned 202-195 BC)
charactercopypronouncebaikeskritterexampleCorrect
  *剋* | 剋* | *剋
Ke (c. 2000 BC), seventh of the legendary Flame Emperors, 炎帝 descended from Shennong 神農|神农 Farmer God

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Tip: Pinyin can be entered with or without tone numbers, e.g. 'nihao' or 'ni3hao3'.
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