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Pīnyīn
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HSK
lit. warp and weft in weaving; vertically and horizontal / length and breadth / criss-crossed / able to move unhindered / abbr. for 合縱連橫|合纵连横, School of Diplomacy during the Warring States Period (475-221 BC)
HSK 6
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  *前* | 前* | *前
front / forward / ahead / first / top (followed by a number) / future / ago / before / BC (e.g. 293) / former / formerly
charactercopypronouncebaikeskritterexampleCorrect
  *陈* | 陈* | *陈
surname Chen / Chen (c. 1045 - 479 BC), a Zhou dynasty state / Chen (557-589), one of the Southern Dynasties 南朝
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  *周* | 周* | *周
surname Zhou / Zhou Dynasty (1046-256 BC)
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  *克* | 克* | *克
Ke (c. 2000 BC), seventh of the legendary Flame Emperors, 炎帝 descended from Shennong 神農|神农 Farmer God
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  *商* | 商* | *商
Shang Dynasty (c. 1600-1046 BC) / surname Shang
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  *赵* | 赵* | *赵
surname Zhao / one of the seven states during the Warring States Period (476-220 BC) / the Former Zhao 前趙 (304-329) and Later Zhao 後趙 (319-350), states of the Sixteen Kingdoms
charactercopypronouncebaikeskritterexampleCorrect
  *直* | 直* | *直
surname Zhi / Zhi (c. 2000 BC), fifth of the legendary Flame Emperors 炎帝 descended from Shennong 神農|神农 Farmer God
charactercopypronouncebaikeskritterexampleCorrect
  *明* | 明* | *明
Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) / surname Ming / Ming (c. 2000 BC), fourth of the legendary Flame Emperors, 炎帝 descended from Shennong 神農|神农 Farmer God
charactercopypronouncebaikeskritterexampleCorrect
  *秦* | 秦* | *秦
surname Qin / Qin dynasty (221-207 BC) of the first emperor 秦始皇 / abbr. for 陝西|陕西
charactercopypronouncebaikeskritterexampleCorrect
  *魏* | 魏* | *魏
surname Wei / name of vassal state of Zhou dynasty from 661 BC in Shanxi, one of the Seven Hero Warring States / Wei state, founded by Cao Cao 曹操, one of the Three Kingdoms after the Han dynasty / the Wei dynasty 221-265 / Wei prefecture and Wei county at different historical periods
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  *翼* | 翼* | *翼
surname Yi / alternative name for 絳|绛 capital of the Jin State during the Spring and Autumn Period (770-475 BC)
charactercopypronouncebaikeskritterexampleCorrect
  *汉* | 汉* | *汉
Han ethnic group / Chinese (language) / the Han dynasty (206 BC-220 AD)
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  *卫* | 卫* | *卫
surname Wei / vassal state during the Zhou Dynasty (1066-221 BC), located in present day Henan and Hebei Provinces
charactercopypronouncebaikeskritterexampleCorrect
  *启* | 启* | *启
Qi son of Yu the Great , reported founder of the Xia Dynasty 夏朝 (c. 2070-c. 1600 BC)
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  *夏* | 夏* | *夏
the Xia or Hsia dynasty c. 2000 BC / Xia of the Sixteen Kingdoms (407-432) / surname Xia
Chinese language (Mandarin), emphasizing its national nature / Chinese as a primary or secondary school subject / Chinese in the context of the Nationalist Government / Guoyu, book of historical narrative c. 10th-5th century BC
charactercopypronouncebaikeskritterexampleCorrect
  *承* | 承* | *承
surname Cheng / Cheng (c. 2000 BC), third of the legendary Flame Emperors 炎帝 descended from Shennong 神農|神农 Farmer God
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  *楚* | 楚* | *楚
surname Chu / abbr. for Hubei 湖北省 and Hunan 湖南省 provinces together / Chinese kingdom during the Spring and Autumn and Warring States Periods (722-221 BC)
charactercopypronouncebaikeskritterexampleCorrect
  *禹* | 禹* | *禹
Yu the Great (c. 21st century BC), mythical leader who tamed the floods / surname Yu
School of Agriculture, school of thought of the Warring States Period (475-221 BC)
charactercopypronouncebaikeskritterexampleCorrect
  *邹* | 邹* | *邹
surname Zou / vassal state during the Zhou Dynasty (1046-256 BC) in the southeast of Shandong Province
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  *姬* | 姬* | *姬
surname Ji / family name of the Zhou Dynasty 周代 (1046-256 BC)
School of Logicians of the Warring States Period (475-220 BC), also called the School of Names
Duke of Zhou (11th c. BC), son of King Wen of Zhou 周文王, played an important role as regent in founding the Western Zhou 西周, and is also known as the "God of Dreams"
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  *翟* | 翟* | *翟
surname Di / variant of , generic name for northern ethnic minorities during the Qin and Han Dynasties (221 BC-220 AD)
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  *尧* | 尧* | *尧
surname Yao / Yao or Tang Yao (c. 2200 BC), one of Five legendary Emperors 五帝, second son of Di Ku 帝嚳|帝喾
charactercopypronouncebaikeskritterexampleCorrect
  *薛* | 薛* | *薛
surname Xue / vassal state during the Zhou Dynasty (1046-256 BC)
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  *狄* | 狄* | *狄
surname Di / generic name for northern ethnic minorities during the Qin and Han Dynasties (221 BC-220 AD)
a powerful chief of the princes of the Spring and Autumn Period (770-476 BC) / overlord / hegemon
the Warring States period (475-221 BC)
"Erya" or "The Ready Guide", first extant Chinese dictionary, c. 3rd century BC, with glossaries on classical texts
Spring and Autumn Period (770-476 BC) / Spring and Autumn Annals, chronicle of Lu State (722-481 BC)
Western Han Dynasty (206 BC-8 AD), also called 前漢|前汉, Former Han Dynasty
Sun Tzu, also known as Sun Wu 孫武|孙武 (c. 500 BC, dates of birth and death uncertain), general, strategist and philosopher of the Spring and Autumn Period (700-475 BC), believed to be the author of the “Art of War” 孫子兵法|孙子兵法, one of the Seven Military Classics of ancient China 武經七書|武经七书
charactercopypronouncebaikeskritterexampleCorrect
  *舜* | 舜* | *舜
Shun (c. 23rd century BC), mythical sage and leader
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  *阮* | 阮* | *阮
surname Ruan / small state during the Shang Dynasty (1600-1046 BC) located in the southeast of modern-day Gansu Province
feudal vassal / feudal princes, esp. the monarchs (dukes or princes) of the several vassal states 諸侯國|诸侯国 of Zhou during Western Zhou and Spring and Autumn periods 11th-5th century BC / subordinate warlord / local official
Silla, Korean kingdom 57 BC-935 AD / one of the Korean Three Kingdoms from 1st century AD, defeating its rivals Paikche 百濟|百济 and Koguryo 高句麗|高句丽 around 660 in alliance with Tang China / unified Silla 658-935
Confucius (551-479 BC), Chinese thinker and social philosopher, also known as 孔夫子
charactercopypronouncebaikeskritterexampleCorrect
  *绛* | 绛* | *绛
capital of the Jin State during the Spring and Autumn Period (770-475 BC)
charactercopypronouncebaikeskritterexampleCorrect
  *厘* | 厘* | *厘
Li (c. 2000 BC), sixth of the legendary Flame Emperors 炎帝 descended from Shennong 神農|神农 Farmer God, also known as Ai
School of Minor-talks, one of the Hundred Schools of Thought 諸子百家|诸子百家 during the Warring States Period (475-221 BC)
the Han dynasty (206 BC-220 AD)
A Mirror for the Wise Ruler (or Comprehensive Mirror for Aid in Government), a vast chronological general history, written by 司馬光|司马光 Sima Guang (1019-1089) and collaborators during the Northern Song in 1084, covering the period 403 BC-959 AD, 294 scrolls
BCE (before the Common Era) / BC (before Christ)
Mandate of Heaven / the Grand Canal, 1800 km from Beijing to Hangzhou, built starting from 486 BC / usually written 大運河|大运河
Xiang Yu the Conqueror (232-202 BC), warlord defeated by first Han emperor
Classic of Mountain and Sea, probably compiled c. 500 BC-200 BC, contains wide range of geography, mythology, witchcraft, popular customs etc
Fuyu county in Songyuan 松原, Jilin / Pu'yo, Korean Buyeo (c. 200 BC-494 AD), ancient kingdom in northeast frontier region of China
pre-Qin, Chinese history up to the foundation of the Qin imperial dynasty in 221 BC
Guanzi or Guan Zhong 管仲 (-645 BC), famous politician of Qi 齊國|齐国 of Spring and Autumn period / Guanzi, classical book containing writings of Guan Zhong and his school
Plato (c. 427-c. 347 BC), Greek philosopher
charactercopypronouncebaikeskritterexampleCorrect
  *哀* | 哀* | *哀
Ai (c. 2000 BC), sixth of legendary Flame Emperors 炎帝 descended from Shennong 神農|神农 Farmer God, also known as Li 釐|厘
Zhang Yi (-309 BC), political strategist of the School of Diplomacy 縱橫家|纵横家 during the Warring States Period (475-221 BC)
Mencius (c. 372-c. 289 BC), Confucian philosopher second only to Confucius / book of the same name, one of the classics of Confucianism
the Hundred Schools of Thought, the various schools of thought and their exponents during the Spring and Autumn and Warring States Periods (770-220 BC)
Chu Ci, the Songs of Chu (ancient book of poems, collected during Han but esp. from country of Chu c. 500 BC)
Ur (Sumerian city c. 4500 BC in modern Iraq)
Laozi or Lao-tze (c. 500 BC), Chinese philosopher, the founder of Taoism / the sacred book of Daoism, 道德經|道德经 by Laozi
Liu An (179-122 BC), King of Huainan under the Western Han, ordered the writing of the 淮南子
Liangzhu (c. 3400-2250 BC), neolithic culture of Changjiang delta
Western Zhou (1027-771 BC)
Qin Shihuang (259-210 BC), the first emperor
Zhuangzi (369-286 BC), Daoist author
Zuo Zhuan or Tsochuan, Mr Zuo's Annals or Mr Zuo's commentary on 春秋, early history c. 400 BC attributed to famous blind historian Zuo Qiuming 左丘明
Han Dynasty (206 BC-220 AD)
Shennong or Farmer God (c. 2000 BC), first of the legendary Flame Emperors, 炎帝 and creator of agriculture
the Qin (221-207 BC) and Han (206 BC-220 AD) dynasties
Han dynasty (206 BC-220 AD) / refers to the Western Han and Eastern Han
state of Wei (c. 1040-209 BC), vassal of Zhou
lit. military tactics on paper (idiom) / fig. theoretical discussion that is worse than useless in practice / armchair strategist / idle theorizing / cf Zhao Kuo 趙括|赵括 leading an army of 400,000 to total annihilation at battle of Changping 長平之戰|长平之战 in 260 BC
same as Zhuangzi 莊子|庄子 (369-286 BC), Daoist author
charactercopypronouncebaikeskritterexampleCorrect
  *垚* | 垚* | *垚
variant of 堯|尧, legendary emperor Yao, c. 2200 BC / embankment
Ying Zheng (260-210 BC), personal name of the first emperor 秦始皇
Fuxi or Fu Hsi, legendary Chinese emperor, trad. 2852-2738 BC, mythical creator of fishing, trapping and writing
the Grand Canal, 1800 km from Beijing to Hangzhou, built starting from 486 BC
Han Xin (-196 BC), famous general of first Han emperor Liu Bang 劉邦|刘邦
Wang Zhaojun (52-19 BC), famous beauty at the court of Han emperor Yuan 漢元帝|汉元帝, one of the four legendary beauties 四大美女
Han Fei, also known as Han Feizi 韓非子|韩非子 (c. 280-233 BC), Legalist philosopher of the Warring States Period (475-220 BC)
the Yellow Emperor, mythological emperor of China, reigned c. 2697-2597 BC
Qi state of Western Zhou and the Warring states (1122-265 BC), centered in Shandong
Aristotle (384-322 BC), Greek philosopher
Liu Bang (256 or 247-195 BC), bandit leader who became first Han emperor Han Gaozu 漢高祖|汉高祖 (reigned 202-195 BC)
Vertical Alliance, clique of the School of Diplomacy 縱橫家|纵横家 during the Warring States Period (425-221 BC)
the Spring and Autumn (770-476 BC) and Warring States (475-221 BC) periods
Beijing resident / Peking ape-man, Homo erectus pekinensis (c. 600,000 BC), discovered in 1921 at Zhoukoudian 周口店, Beijing
Mozi (c. 470-391 BC), founder of the Mohist School 墨家 of the Warring States Period (475-220 BC)
bronze implement / refers to ancient bronze artifacts, from c. 2,000 BC
King Gou Jian of Yue (c. 470 BC), sometimes considered one of the Five Hegemons 春秋五霸
Mohist School of the Warring States Period (475-220 BC), founded by the philosopher 墨子
Li Guang (-119 BC), Han dynasty general, nicknamed Flying General 飛將軍|飞将军 and much feared by the Xiongnu 匈奴
秦越人 (407-310 BC), Warring States physician known for his medical skills, nicknamed Bian Que after the earliest known Chinese physician allegedly from the 黃帝|黄帝 era
Feast at Hongmen / (fig.) banquet set up with the aim of murdering a guest / refers to a famous episode in 206 BC when future Han emperor Liu Bang 劉邦|刘邦 escaped attempted murder by his rival Xiang Yu 項羽|项羽
Confucian school, founded by Confucius 孔子 (551-479 BC) and Mencius 孟子 (c. 372-c. 289 BC)
Yu the Great (c. 21st century BC) mythical leader who tamed the floods
Archimedes (c. 287-212 BC)
"Strategies of the Warring States", chronicle of the Warring States Period (475-220 BC), possibly written by Su Qin 蘇秦|苏秦
Saul (name) / biblical king around 1000 BC
Han Feizi, book of Legalist Philosophy authored by Han Fei 韓非|韩非 during the Warring States Period (475-220 BC)

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